What are platelets..
Platelets are the cells that circulate within our blood and bind together when they recognize damaged blood vessels.
Platelets, the smallest of our blood cells, can only be seen under a microscope. They’re literally shaped like small plates in their non-active state. A blood vessel will send out a signal when it becomes damaged. When platelets receive that signal, they’ll respond by traveling to the area and transforming into their “active” formation.
A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood.
What are cytokines...
Cytokines are cell signaling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma.
Are “immunomodulation agents" or agents that modulate or alter the immune system response.
Cytokines are important regulators of both the innate and adaptive immune response.
What is Platelet Rich Plasma...
Sometimes referred to as autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (meaning using patient’s own blood). Blood typically contains 6% platelets whereas PRP has a significantly increased supra-physiological platelet concentration.
Platelet Rich Plasma is a small volume of plasma, in which proteins, cytokines, red –and white blood cells, and concentrated platelet are suspended (4-7 times, when compared to native levels). Platelet level can vary depending on the method of extraction and equipment, studies have shown that clinical benefit can be obtained if the PRP used has an increased platelet concentration of 4x greater than normal blood
Normal blood contains around 150,000 to 450,000 platelets/microliter, therapeutic PRP should contain 1.0million platelet/microliter.
When applied to a tissue, or injury sites, it induces tissue regeneration through multiple pathways, like platelet growth factor release and cell mediating cytokines.
Platelet must be activated at the level of tissue injury in order for the PRP graft to be successful. During activation the platelet successfully releases their content and begins the healing cascade of events that leads to the restoration and growth of normal collagen. Wound healing or collagen repair can be separated into three separate phases or stages (inflammation, proliferation and remodeling).
How does PRP work...
Platelets contain many growth factors, at least 5-6 are well known and have previously been proven to be vital to bone and soft tissue healing.
1. High concentration of platelets yielding various healing growth factors:
PDGF (Platelet derived growth factor)
TGF-α&β (Transforming Growth alpha and beta)
EFG-(Epidermal growth factor)
FGF-(Fibroblast growth factor)
IGF-(insulin Growth Factor)
PDAF-(Platelet derived angiogenesis factor)
2. High concentration of WBC and Phagocytic cells
3. Vasoactive and chemotactic agents